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Project 2. Generating Awareness on Disaster Management
Project 2. Generating Awareness on Disaster Management
by cool chandan »
1.First of all student have to write about Disaster Management in introduction.2.Describe any three or four disasters,write about them in one-one page & write preparedness,precautions,what to do before & after occurrence of disasters,what to do at the same time of occurrence,etc.
Here is some matter regarding projects:-
Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster response (e.g. emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.), as well as supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human-made disasters have occurred. In general, any Emergency management is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards. Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of risk of those exposed. Effective emergency management relies on thorough integration of emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government involvement. Activities at each level (individual, group, community) affect the other levels. It is common to place the responsibility for governmental emergency management with the institutions for civil defense or within the conventional structure of the emergency services. In the private sector, emergency management is sometimes referred to as business continuity planning.
In the preparedness phase, emergency managers develop plans of action for when the disaster strikes. Common preparedness measures include:
* communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods.* proper maintenance and training of emergency services, including mass human resources such as community emergency response teams.* development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans.* stockpiling, inventory, and maintain disaster supplies and equipment* develop organizations of trained volunteers among civilian populations. (Professional emergency workers are rapidly overwhelmed in mass emergencies so trained, organized, responsible volunteers are extremely valuable. Organizations like Community Emergency Response Teams and the Red Cross are ready sources of trained volunteers. Its emergency management system has gotten high ratings from both California, and FEMA.)
EarthquakeEarthquakes refer to shaking of earth. There is continuous activity going on below the surface of the earth. There are several large plates (size of continents) below the surface of the earth, which move (at a very slow speed). As a part of this movement, sometimes, they collide against each other. And, after the collision, they might still continue to push each other. As they continually keep pushing each other, there is a pressure building up – across these plates below the surface. And, then, at a certain time, one of the plates might slide over another. This causes an earthquake.
Some earthquakes might be caused by activity above the surface. For example in a mountainous region, there might be a heavy landslide. Due to a huge mass of land falling, at the point of the fall, there could be a minor shaking of earth, due the impact of fall. However, usually, such earthquakes are not very major.
Recognizing an Earthquake:-The most common ways to identify the onset of an earthquake would be:
* A feeling of shaking of the ground below you, if you are sitting/standing. The most common feeling is – as if the person is feeling giddy.
* Swinging of overhead hanging stuff, e.g. fans, chandeliers etc. However, in this situation, you should distinguish between swaying of overhead hanging stuff – due to wind
* A feeling as if both the rear tires of your car are flat (if you are driving)
Hence, in case of an earthquake, the safest place to be would be in an open ground – away from all kinds of buildings and tall structures.
If you can not rush out of your building, you can duck under some sturdy desk etc. which might provide protection against heavy objects falling on your body.
If even that is not possible, sit against a wall, with your back pushing the wall firmly, and, lean forward – to take your head in between both your knees, and, put your hands at the back of your head – to provide protection to your head and spine.
Or, you could stand directly below one of the door-frame in your house. This one appears a bit strange to many people. In fact, there are jokes that after an earthquake – you don’t see all those door-frames standing. So, whats the reasoning behind advising people to stand below door-frames? In most styles of construction, doorframes are made very strong, or, would have a “RCC beam” running right above these frames. Either way, this “strong” structure would take the impact of objects falling from above, and, would break the impact of the heavy objects falling on the person. If you use this posture, remember to save your arms and fingers from swaying doors etc. If not careful, they could cause damage by chopping off fingers etc. due to the banging of the doors against the frame.
Some simple thumb rules to follow for constructing a house in an area prone to earthquake:
1. The entire construction should be a single monolithic structure, so that the whole structure can move as a whole
2. To the extent possible, material used should be something that has been available locally. This would allow very little differential in the movement of your building vis-à-vis the material over which the house sits – thus reducing the chances of sinking
3. Minimum use of glass in building facades. These decorative pieces could be deadly, during an earthquake. Glass being very brittle, even a minor twist in the structure could cause breakage. And, glass being very heavy and injurious could cause severe damage
4. Doors and windows should have fasteners, so that they can be fastened. If the doors and windows are not fastened, they might cause any of the following situations:
* Swaying/banging of doors and windows against the frame could damage your limbs/fingers/toes etc.* The doors might get “stuck” due to damaged/misaligned frame – making it difficult for you to run out, or, for the rescue teams to reach you.
5.Consult a good structural engineer to ensure that the structure is strong enough to withstand seismic activities
Earthquake-Proof Your Home
When staying in the house, simple precautions should be used:
1. Large/heavy items should be fastened, so that they don’t fall-off, during earthquakes.
2. Hanging items (like: fan, chandeliers, decorations etc.) should be fastened, rather than just left hanging through a hook
3. You should be adequately prepared to live without utilities for several days. As earthquake causes severe damages over large areas, most of the utilities that we might take for granted, might not be available for several days. These are anyways generic precautions against disasters of any kind.
Floods refer to huge amount of water reaching land in a short span of time, causing land surface to be submerged under water – at places, where, land surface is usually not covered with water.
Floods could be caused due to natural causes, or, human activities, or, a combination of both. Floods are caused by discharge of huge volume of water in a short span of time, at a rate, such that the water can not be carried away from the scene of discharge.
Some of the possible reasons for such huge discharge of water could be:
1. very heavy rainfall (say: due to cyclones, typhoons etc.) in a short span of time. It should be noted that the amount of rainfall itself is not a sufficient cause, the duration within which the rainfall is receive is equally important contributor2. breach in levy, dams etc3. very high tidal waves (sometimes in the aftermath of a seismic activity, e.g. earthquakes) etc. – also called tsunamis
Usually, flooding impacts a large area, wherein entire district or states might be flooded. However, sometimes, flooding is very local, i.e. limited to just one city, or, parts of it. Most often, the localized flooding is caused due to human activities, rather than natural phenomenon. A natural phenomenon might seem like the immediate trigger, but, in reality, this is caused by human activity.
There are some places, which get flooded almost every year. One such example is Bangladesh. Some of the other places which had incidents of bad flooding in the recent past include:
* Florida, in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina (2005)* Myanmar (2008)* Portions of Coastal India get flooded almost each year
Among various kinds of disasters, flooding is unique in the sense that it has a very high degree of predictability, both in the short term, as well as long term. In most situations, flood prone areas are quite known – in the sense that they have a history of flooding. Only in very rare situations, a place might be flooded – without having any past history of flooding. Even in such cases, a careful study of the area could give an indication of possible flooding.
Indicators of Possible FloodingUsually, any of the following situations should indicate the possibility of flooding:
* heavy rainfall in/around the vicinity, especially, if the specific location falls in the pathway of the water-discharge system from the area receiving heavy rainfall* if there is heavy rainfall/flow of water/accumulation of water, on the other side of a boundary, e.g. across a dam, across a levy, side of a river-embankment etc., because, these boundaries might get breached
As can be seen, both the above situations can be predicted to a reasonable degree. These days, the meteorological predictions are accurate enough for upto 4-5 days. Hence, its usually possible to know about the possibility of heavy rainfall about 4-5 days in advance.
Also, areas which are prone to heavy rainfall, cyclones, typhoons etc. are also well-known. Hence, the predictability is very high even in long-term, in the sense, that certain areas are known to be flood-prone. The advantage of long-term predictability is that people might be able to take long-term precautionary measures also – requiring heavy investments.
Also, for situations, where, there is a boundary between huge mass of water, and, your living place, again, keeping an eye on the following two situations should be a good indication of the possibility of flooding:
1. increase in the volume/mass of water being built up on the other side of the boundary2. general maintenance and upkeep of the boundary
General level of civic maintenance is a good indication of the possibility of flooding, during rainfall. If the drains and streets are generally clean, the possibility of flooding gets reduced; on the other hand, if the drains and streets are generally choked or dirty, the chances of flooding (atleast at the local level) gets increased.
Now, that we know, how can we figure out the possibility of flooding, lets look at the possibility of preventing it.
PreparednessSometimes, it might not be possible to prevent a flood, even if we know that its about to get flooded. However, there are certain actions that can be taken to reduce the impact significantly, or, to reduce the possibility of flooding:
1. The first step is to keep the drainage system clean. This allows water to be carried down very fast. Choked drains cause a significant reduction in the ability and speed of the water to be drained away. In most situations of urban flooding – this is a major cause. The drains might get choked due to throwing of solid-wastes inside storm drains. These solid-wastes might include construction material, plastics, paper etc. This is a clear example, how human activity can amplify the process of flooding. Drains might also get choked due to falling tree-leaves etc.
2. General clean-up of streets is also important. As rain-water falls down the street, it rushes into the storm drains. if the streets are not clean, the rain water trying to go into the drain – carries solid wastes into the drain with itself, which then obstructs the flow of water by the drainage system.
3. Rain water harvesting system: As more rain-water tries to flow down the drains, it puts that much more stress on the drainage system. Instead, if there are several rain-water harvesting systems, the rainfall falling in that much area would try to go to the sub-soil of the region locally, rather than straining the drainage system. Lower is the amount of water trying to go through the drainage system, the easier it is for the drainage system to drain off the water.
4. Desilting: The drains should be desilted before the onset of the rainy season. This prevents the drains from getting choked. And, it also inceases the holding capacity of the drain, as, accumulated silt prevents that much more water from being accumulated in the drains.
5. Inspection and repair of dams, levees, embankments etc: Before the onset of seasons causing accumulation and/or carrying of heavy volume of water (such as rainy season), these structures should be thoroughly inspected for possible weak-spots, and, these should be repaired.
6. Afforestation: Forestation helps in binding the loose soil. The most major impact of this is, as flood-water races through, it might take loose soil with it. This loose soil will now choke the drains, as well as water-harvesting systems, thus, rendering both of these as ineffective. On the other hand, trees will prevent soil to flow with the water, as, the roots of the trees will act as binding force. Another major impact that afforestation provides is by reducing the impact of flowing water. This has impact on large-scale flooding, such as overflowing river. As water charges forward, its speed is reduced to some extent due to resistance offered by trees. This can reduce the force of the charging water – thereby, reducing structural damage – due to weakening in the force with which water hits various structures.
7. Local lowlands (say: foot of an overbridge) should have storm drains, so that water does not get accumulated there. These drains should have some kind of mesh covering, so that only water can flow in. Leaves and other solid debris should not go in these drains.8. Local embankments around low-lying houses etc: Lets say, for some reason, your house is at a level lower than its vicinity (e.g. road-level). This can happen, because, say: you have constructed a basement – which is obviously lower than the road-level, or, over a period of years, the road-level has risen due to repeated tarring etc. In such cases, you should create a “local” embankment between the street/road and your property, so that water can not flow “down” from the street/road inside your house. These embankment might be permanent – in the form of concrete structure.
Besides impacting the process of flooding itself, most (not all) of these factors also have an immense impact on the rate at which water levels might recede – after the source of the flooding has been removed. e.g. Lets say a city got flooded, after heavy rainfall. Now, once the rainfall is stopped, the water levels in the streets etc. might tend to recede. At this stage, once again, the rate at which water levels can recede is dependent on the ability of the storm drains to carry the accumulated water, as well as the total amount of water that has been accumulated – which needs to be drained out.
Being PreparedPeople who stay in flood-prone areas should construct their houses using material which does not get damaged severely due to flood-water. Also, since, there is a strong risk of structural damage (for large-scale flooding), the material used to construct the house should be such that it can withstand high impact – due to the charge of flowing water. One should prefer areas, which are slightly elevated. These could be local elevations, i.e. higher parts of the city etc. There should be strong embankments along all entrances of the houses – so that flood water does not enter the house easily.
Cement bags, covered with plastic sheets might be used to keep the flood water from entering the houses.
Besides, long boots should always be kept, so that one does not run the risk of being bitten by snakes and/or other insects that might also be trying to save themselves from the twirling flood-waters.
One should keep arrangements for raising the height of items, which might get damaged in water, e.g. put a few pieces of bricks below the legs of the furniture, such as bed etc. to raise its height.
Important document should always be kept on higher shelves.
As water, food and utilities would not be available – and that too – for possibly several days, one should also take measures towards General Preparedness
FireFire is a very good servant, but, a very bad master. As long as fire is under our control, it serves a lot of useful purposes for us, but, once it goes out of our control, it can create a lot of destruction. However, despite the presence of fire safety measures, the occurrence of accidents is oftentimes inevitable. For this reason, a life insurance policy can be very valuable piece of document.
It is this combination (of good servant and bad master), which is dangerous.
Because of the useful purposes that it serves, people keep sources of fire in/around their houses/workplace. And, these sources could sometimes result in “undesired” fire. Had fire been something, which serves no useful purpose – the number of incidents of fire would have been very less – as people wont keep sources of fire around them.
Thus, the occurrence of fire-related accidents is oftentimes inevitable – inspite of all the safety precautions. For this reason, an insurance policy should always be taken.
Causes Of Fire
The most common causes of fire are:# Electrical# Pantry Area# Smoking
Types Of Fire Extinguishers
# Water Based# Foam Based# CO2 Based# CFC Based# Dry Chemical Based
Using An Extinguisher
So, now that you have decided how to fight a fire, and, what kind of extinguishers to use, lets see, how to use an extinguisher. Most extinguishers are based on PASS System.
1. “P” -> Pull the Pin on the extinguisher. This pin is kept to prevent accidental discharge while carrying/transporting the extinguishers.
2. “A” -> Aim the nozzle of the extinguisher at the base of the fire. Its very important that the discharge from the extinguisher is directed towards the base of the fire. Most people make the mistake of directing the extinguishing agent on the fire itself. That’s ineffective. The extinguishing agent should be directed at the base of the fire – where the burning material is located. That is the point, where the fire-triangle is established, which needs to be broken.
3. “S” -> Squeeze the trigger, so that the extinguishing agent starts flowing out of the cylinder, and, onto the burning material – at the base of the fire.4. “S” -> Swipe the nozzle sideways to coat the entire burning material, with the extinguishing agent.
“PASS” is an acronym to remember the steps involved – Pull (the pin), Aim (the nozzle), Squeeze (the trigger), Swipe (sideways).
Precautions While Fighting A Fire
When fighting a fire:
1. Always stay upwind: It protects you from heat, smoke etc. It allows you to go closer to fire – thus, being able to better direct your extinguishing agent. It protects you from inhalation of poisonous gases, which might be given out during the fire.
2. Keep under observation, even when the fire is extinguished. Smoldering particles can easily rekindle, thus, catching you off-guard.3. Pour extinguishing agent in adequate quantity, rather than small quantities. Doing it in installments does not help. One discharge of 60 liters of water is not the same as two discharges of 30 liters each. E.g. If you have to pour 4 buckets of water, have the 4 buckets ready, and, pour all 4 buckets in one go. Instead, if you pour two buckets of water, refill them, and, pour again – its not the same.
Deciding Whether To Fight The Fire Or Leave The Site
So, now that you are well equipped in fighting a fire – you just need to decide, whether you want to fight a fire, or, flee away from it. Remember, in general, timely action helps a lot in containing the damage. Besides, more often than not, general fires (specially Class A fires) don’t spread suddenly – unless, chemical reactions are involved. This means that if you can nip a fire in the bud, you should try to fight and extinguish it.
Still, no material is worth more than human life. So, don’t fight, if any of the following conditions are involved:
1. You don’t have sufficient/right material to fight the fire. The time spent in fighting could impact your ability to evacuate2. You don’t have backup. You should be able to get help, in case, there is a need3. Fire seems to be blocking your exit path4. You have no idea what is burning For example – Class D fire would need specialized knowledge of the metal under fire, and, how will that metal react with different extinguishing agents – at high temperature5. Fire seems to be spreading too fast6. There are explosives around7. You don’t feel comfortable and confident
Finally: In case of a fire:
1. DO NOT PANIC2. Decide your strategy.3. If you want to fight:1. With What2. How3. Which arm (of the fire triangle) to fight4. Or, you might want to flee (evacuate)
Remember, all the conditions might not be met, e.g. to stay upwind, you might have to get away from the exit. Depending on the circumstances, you would have to choose which conditions to meet, and, which one to compromise.
You should know the local Fire-Station Number. Most countries have a uniform number (valid across the whole country) to reach the local fire-station. Do not ever make test/prank calls. Besides, being illegal (in most countries), you might have to live with guilt for the rest of your life – if your prank call – caused delayed response to a real fire-emergency somewhere else.
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